|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$1,821||Benefits minus costs||$7,034|
|Participants||$4,499||Benefit to cost ratio||$19.56|
|Others||$2,296||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($1,202)||benefits greater than the costs||62 %|
|Net program cost||($379)|
|Benefits minus cost||$7,034|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
Externalizing behavior symptoms
Symptoms of externalizing behavior (e.g., aggressive, hostile, or disruptive behavior) measured on a validated scale.
Symptoms of internalizing behavior (e.g., sadness, anxiety, or withdrawal) measured on a validated scale.
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|Test scores||Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$1,923||$4,518||$2,383||($962)||$7,863|
|Externalizing behavior symptoms||Criminal justice system||($8)||$0||($18)||($4)||($31)|
|K-12 special education||($27)||$0||$0||($13)||($40)|
|Health care associated with externalizing behavior symptoms||($67)||($19)||($69)||($34)||($189)|
|Internalizing symptoms||K-12 grade repetition||$0||$0||$0||$0||$0|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($190)||($190)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$119||2012||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($379)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2012||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
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