|Benefit-Cost Summary Statistics Per Participant|
|Taxpayers||$3,991||Benefits minus costs||$17,521|
|Participants||$9,321||Benefit to cost ratio||$34.81|
|Others||$4,974||Chance the program will produce|
|Indirect||($248)||benefits greater than the costs||98 %|
|Net program cost||($518)|
|Benefits minus cost||$17,521|
|Meta-Analysis of Program Effects|
|Outcomes measured||Treatment age||No. of effect sizes||Treatment N||Adjusted effect sizes(ES) and standard errors(SE) used in the benefit - cost analysis||Unadjusted effect size (random effects model)|
|First time ES is estimated||Second time ES is estimated|
Standardized, validated tests of academic achievement.
High school graduation
On-time completion of high school with a diploma (excluding GED attainment).
|Detailed Monetary Benefit Estimates Per Participant|
|Affected outcome:||Resulting benefits:1||Benefits accrue to:|
|null||Criminal justice system||$23||$0||$57||$12||$92|
|Labor market earnings associated with test scores||$3,968||$9,321||$4,917||$0||$18,206|
|Program cost||Adjustment for deadweight cost of program||$0||$0||$0||($259)||($259)|
|Detailed Annual Cost Estimates Per Participant|
|Annual cost||Year dollars||Summary|
|Program costs||$479||2013||Present value of net program costs (in 2018 dollars)||($518)|
|Comparison costs||$0||2013||Cost range (+ or -)||10 %|
Benefits Minus Costs
Benefits by Perspective
Taxpayer Benefits by Source of Value
|Benefits Minus Costs Over Time (Cumulative Discounted Dollars)|
|The graph above illustrates the estimated cumulative net benefits per-participant for the first fifty years beyond the initial investment in the program. We present these cash flows in discounted dollars. If the dollars are negative (bars below $0 line), the cumulative benefits do not outweigh the cost of the program up to that point in time. The program breaks even when the dollars reach $0. At this point, the total benefits to participants, taxpayers, and others, are equal to the cost of the program. If the dollars are above $0, the benefits of the program exceed the initial investment.|
Bartik, T.J., & Lachowska, M. (2014). The effects of doubling instruction efforts on middle school students' achievement: Evidence from a mutiyear regression-discontinuity design (Working Paper 14-205). Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Cortes, K., Goodman, J., & Nomi, T. (2014). Intensive math instruction and educational attainment: Long-run impacts of double-dose algebra (Working Paper 20211). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Dougherty, S.M. (2015). Bridging the discontinuity in adolescent literacy?: Mixed evidence from a middle grades intervention. Education, Finance, and Policy, 10(2), 157-192.
Fryer, R.G. (2011). Injecting successful charter school strategies into traditional public schools: Early results from an experiment in Houston (NBER Working Paper 17494). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Taylor, E. (2014). Spending more of the school day in math class: Evidence from a regression discontinuity in middle school. Journal of Public Economics, 117, 162-181.